Saturday, 18 June 2011

SARAWAK CULTURAL PERFORMANCES - SO YOU THINK YOU CAN DANCE?

Sarawak Cultural Performances are staged for the benefit of tourists visiting the Sarawak Cultural Village. In addition to showcasing the different peoples of Sarawak, the Sarawak Cultural Village also put on display the various dances performed by the different ethnic groups of the state. Many of these dances do tell stories associated with the daily life in Sarawak. The following is a repertoire of dances, a selection of which may be performed at the theatre of the Sarawak Cultural Village:

Iban - Ngajat Lesong

Ngajat Lesong is performed by an Iban warrior who demonstrates the extraordinary strength of his teeth by lifting a mortar that weigh around 20 kg. This dance shows the warrior's agility as well as endurance.

Iban - Ngajat Pahlawan

This dance is performed by the village folk to welcome the return of their warriors especially after a victorious battle.

Bidayuh - Rajang Be'uh

This dance is usually performed for guest to the longhouse after the completion of harvest. The dancers imitate the movement of eagles by moving outstretched hands, as though in flight. 

Bidayuh - Tolak Bala

This dance is performed prior to harvest, as a way to seek blessing for good harvest and protection to the community against evil spirits.

Bidayuh - Langgi Julang

This dance is performed by Bidayuh men on a julang, or brass tray, accompanied by Bidayuh maidens, when a new village chief is selected.

Orang Ulu - Datun Julud

This is a welcome dance performed by the Orang Ulu maidens to welcome guests to their longhouse.

Orang Ulu - Kanjet Ngeleput

This is a warrior dance. It portrays the numble but stealthy gait of the warrior as he conducts a hunting trip in the jungle. He sees his target, takes aim and shoots a dart that seldom misses the mark.

Melanau - Tarian Menyak

This dance showcases the community work of the Melanau as they process sago, for making sago pearls.

Melanau - Alu-Alu

This dance is performed during funeral rites as a way to comfort the relatives and friends of the departed.

Malay - Senandong Sarawak

This dance combines two popular Malay dances - the Dayang Sari followed by the ever-popular joget.

Malay - Tarian Royong

This is a modern dance depicting the playfulness of the Malay youth after a hard day's work.

Malay - Serampang Baru

This dance portrays the joyous atmosphere in a village during a celebration. It is when the young males come out to court the young maidens.

Chinese - Lion Dance

The lion dance is performed to signify the strength, courage and power of the lion, and is particularly popular during major celebrations such as Chinese New Year. 

LET’S EAT & DRINK – SARAWAK STYLE

Indigenous dishes

§  Manok Pansoh.

Manok Pansoh is the most common dish among Iban. It is a chicken dish which normally be eaten with white rice. Chicken pieces are cut and stuffed into the bambo together with other ingredients like mushrooms, lemongrass, tapioca leaves etc and cooked over an open fire - similar to the way lemang is cooked. This natural way of cooking seals in the flavours and produces astonishingly tender chicken with a gravy perfumed with lemongrass and bamboo. Manok Pansoh cannot be found easily in all restaurants and coffee shops. Some restaurants require advanced booking of Manok Pansoh dish prior to your arrival.

§  Umai.

 Umai is a raw fish salad popular among various ethnic groups of Sarawak, especially the Melanaus. In fact, umai is a traditional working lunch for the Melanau fishermen. Umai is prepared raw from freshly caught fish, iced but not frozen. Main species used include Mackerel, Bawal Hitam and Umpirang. It is made mainly of thin slivers of raw fish, thinly sliced onions, chilli, salt and the juice of sour fruits like lime or assam. It is usually accompanied by a bowl of toasted sago pearls instead of rice. Its simplicity makes it a cinch for fishermen to prepare it aboard their boats. Umai Jeb, a raw fish salad without other additional spices, is famous among Bintulu Melanaus. However, it is rarely prepared in Kuching. You can try umai when you eat 'Nasi Campur' during lunch hours in Kuching. Most coffee shops, especially Malay or Bumiputera-owned one, served umai daily for 'Nasi Campur'.

§  Midin (originated from Sarawak).

The locals greatly indulge in jungle fern such as the midin (quite similar to pucuk paku that is popular in the Peninsular). Midin is much sought after for its crisp texture and great taste. Midin is usually served in two equally delicious ways - fried with either garlic or belacan. You can try Midin when you eat 'Nasi Campur' during lunch hours in Kuching. Most coffee shops, served Midin daily for 'Nasi Campur'.

§  Bubur Pedas (originated from Sarawak).

Unlike many other porridge that we know, Bubur Pedas is cooked with a specially prepared paste. It is quite spicy thanks to its ingredients, which include spices, turmeric, lemon grass, galangal, chillies, ginger, coconut and shallots. Like the famous Bubur Lambuk of Kuala Lumpur, Bubur Pedas is exclusive dish prepared during the month of Ramadan and served during the breaking of fast. So don't expect to eat Bubur Pedas at anytime you want!

§  Nasik Aruk (originated from Sarawak).

Nasik Aruk is a traditional Sarawakian Malay fried rice. Unlike Nasi Goreng, Nasik Aruk does not use any oil to fry the rice. The ingredients are garlic, onion and anchovies, fried to perfection with very little oil and then the cook will put the rice in. The rice must be fried for longer time (compared to frying rice for Nasi Goreng) for the smokey/slightly-burnt taste to absorb into the rice. It is a common to see Nasik Aruk in the food menu list at Malay and Mamak coffee shops and stalls.

§  Linut/Ambuyat (originated from Brunei, but widely consumed in Sabah and Sarawak).

Linut (in Sarawak) and Ambuyat (in Sabah) is a sticky porridge-like type of food, made from sagu flour. It can be eaten raw, or dipped into spicy sambal belacan. Normally, linut or ambuyat is eaten during high tea or night supper.

CHINESE-INFLUENCED DISHES

§  Sarawak laksa

The local spin on the ubiquitous noodle dish. It's sweet and coconutty like Singapore's laksa lemak, but gets a unique zing from heavy spices (notably sambal belacan, a mix of chili and shrimp paste) plus toppings of prawns, chicken and egg.

§  Kolo mee

Simple but popular Sarawakian noodle dish, consisting of dry egg noodles tossed in oil and served with slices of roast pork.

§  Tomato kueh tiaw

Variation of the popular fried kueh tiaw (thin, flat rice noodles), with tomato gravy, meat (usually chicken pieces), vegetables and seafood (usually prawns). It is particular to Kuching.

§  Kek lapis Sarawak or Sarawak Layer Cake

An elaborately baked cake with multiple layers which has a unique and delicious taste.

§  Foochow bagel (kompia).

This pastry can only be found in Sibu where ethnic Chinese of Foochow clan formed a majority.

DRINK

The local firewater, served up in prodigious quantities if you stay in a longhouse, is known as tuak and is distilled from rice, sago or any other convenient source of fermentable sugar. For those who want a stronger dose, langkau or Iban whisky can be sourced from longhouses in the interior. You can buy commercial tuak (The Royalist) at most supermarkets in Kuching. Great as a souvenir for friends! The commercial rice wine/tuak is rather pleasant to drink too, and none of that home-brewed murkiness either.

THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF SARAWAK

Sarawak Cultural Village

Featuring Sarawak’s infamous cultural showcase, the award winning Sarawak Cultural Village is located at the bottom of Mount Santubong, approximately 35 kilometers from Kuching. The showcase portrays cultures from the major racial groups in Sarawak that has been passed on over the years by acting them out in a dance or through music, similar to a living museum. The performances featuring their lifestyle are being performed in the 14 acres of plantation land.
Main Bazaar (Kuching Waterfront Bazaar)

Taking up the whole row of two storey shop houses, the place has been categorize as the ‘antique arcade’ when they start the business way back in 1864. Located in one of Kuching’s oldest street, the bazaar has been operating for over a century now, hence the nickname given as this antique arcade is not only old-fashioned but selling most of the antiques and handcrafts.
Cat Museum

60 meters above the sea level, the museum is placed at the peak of Bukit Siol, hence the view of the Kuching city. The museum, the world’s first museum, is committed to all things related to cats and their related species can be found in Petra Jaya, positioned in Kuching City North City Hall. Exhibitions, photos, feline art and cat souvenirs can be found there. If you love cats, wait no more!
Satok Market

A place filled with the locals busy choosing their wants and needs every week, the market is definitely a busy place to be at. Main products that are on sale are grubs, sieet, midin (unique wild plant) and those that can be found in a jungle. They are sold either in a makeshift stall along the roadside or just a simple empty rice sack on the ground.
Carpenter Street

Different from the India Street Pedestrian Mall, this place is occupied with the magnificent red archway influenced by the Chinese, marking the entrance of a must visit tourist place. Known as the Chinatown of Kuching, though the shop houses look old, after little amendment, the place is now very fresh looking with walls and windows painted brightly. Being the favorite tourist place, the street is very clean with no vehicles moving in this crowded place.
BATANG AI NATIONAL PARK

The Park is located at Sarawak about 250km from Kuching City with a covering area of 24,040 hectares of rainforest and the artificial lake.  The lake is also the Sarawak’s only artificial lake, which stretches up to Skrang, Lemanak, Engkari and Ai Valleys.  The artificial lake now acts as a water dam that feed to the Batang Ai Hydro Electric Complex to generate the electricity for Sarawak’s use.  Batang Ai National Park was gazetted as a protected area in early 1991.
Visitors can take a boat ride upriver from the dam, about an hour’s of boat ride to see beautiful lowland mixed dipterocarp forest, with drooping trees overhanging the rivers.  The rivers are fast flowing, clear and very refreshing.  The water level gets quite low during the dry seasons where visitors normally have to help push their boats upstream.  Here, the main mode of communication is river transport.

GUNUNG MULU NATIONAL PARK

The Gunung Mulu National Park is situated close to the southern border of Brunei with Malaysia, about 100km east-southeast of the town of Miri and 100km due south of Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.  It lies between the headwaters of the Tutuh River, a tributary of the Baram River and  covers 544km2, ranging in elevation from 50 meters to 2,376 meters.  The park is important for its high biodiversity and unique karst (limestone) features.  Besides that, it contains seventeen vegetation zones, exhibiting some 3,500 species of vascular plants.  It was first constituted on 3 October 1974 but only opened to public in 1985. 
GUA NIAH NATIONAL PARK
Although it is one of Sarawak’s smallest national parks, it is certainly one of the most important and unusual attractions to visitors. What is most interesting about Niah is that one of the main claims to fame is the birthplace of civilization in the region.  The oldest modern human remains in Southeast Asia along with many other relics of prehistoric man were discovered about 40,000 years ago, making the park one of the most important archaeological sites in the world.
The park has a size of 3,140 hectares of forest and limestone karst areas.  It was first gazetted as a National Historic Monument in 1958 and on 23 November 1974 was gazetted as National Park and open to public on 1 January 1975.
In 1958, a discovery was made which confirmed Niah as a site of major archaeological significance.  Led by Tom Harrison, he and his team unearthed a skull at the West Mouth of the Great Cave, which was estimated to be 40,000 years old.  It was the skull of a modern human (Homo sapiens).  Apart from that, plenty of human settlements in the area like tools, cooking utensils and ornaments, made of bone, stone or clay were found.  These items found suggested that a long period of settlement reaching back into the palaeolithic era (the earliest part of the Stone Age).

Semenggoh Orangutan  Center

Semenggoh Orang Utan Sanctuary, travelling overland (30 min) followed by a brief hike through dipterocarp forest. Unlike in a Zoo, the Semenggoh Orang Utan Sanctuary is set free in a 740 hectare forest reserve.
Here, young Orang Utans, who were either orphaned or rescued from captivity, are trained to survive in the wild. The Sanctuary is not set up as a tourist attraction but visitors are most welcome. Upon arrival at the Sanctuary, you will be able to catch a glimpse of the Orang Utans during their feeding time. Spot their delicate nest, watch their skilful movements at the tree tops and also their interesting behaviour during feeding time.
The guide will also narrate to you the behaviour, emotion and characteristics of this special primate called Orang Utan, meaning ‘Man of the Forest’.

 Annah Rais Bidayuh Longhouse, Kuching

Bidayuh, the second largest ethnic group in Sarawak, is formerly known as the ‘Land Dayak’ and was once also known as the ‘Engineer of Bamboo’. When making a visit to the Bidayuh longhouse, you will be able to see the splendid architecture of their longhouse which was build mostly by bamboo. Annah Rais is one of the most famous Bidayuh longhouse in Sarawak which located about 100 km east from Kuching city and quite closes to the Indonesian border. The excursion will take about one and a half hour on the road.
During your visit, you will also be able to view the villagers with their own daily routine like rice pounding and winnowing, basket and mat weaving, bamboo carving, etc. You will be brought into the most unique and important structure, the ‘Baruk’ or the head house which situated in the middle of the longhouse. This once was used as a fort to protect the whole village from being attack by enemy. Inside the ‘Baruk’, you will be able to view the real human skulls hanging around the fire place in the middle and the also their sacred war drum.

Rafflesia Flower Tour at Gunung Gading National Park, Kuching

This is a national park where you can sometimes view the largest flower in the world - the Rafflesia. It grows up to 3 feet wide. When in bloom, the flower emits a foul smell, which attracts flies and other insects. It also offers scenic walks and challenging jungle treks. Chalets and hostels are available at the Park.

Bako National Park  - The Oldest Nationa Park , Kuching

Bako was established as a national park in 1957. Since then it has offered it’s visitors the perfect introduction to Sarawack’s native vegitation and wildlife. It is situated on the northern tip of the Muara Tebas Peninsula and covers 27sq kms.

Although seemingly small compared to other national parks, Bako is rich in a vast variety of vegetation and wildlife as it extends out to coastal beaches and coves.
Upon arrival a guide take you along well-planned trails where you will see an abundance of flora and fauna amongst the shady forest canopy.
You will see winding creepers and vines, long tailed macaques and silver leaf monkeys. Wild boars, squirrels and monitor lizards are common sights in the park and you may even get a chance to peak on the shy proboscis monkeys during low tide with the help of your guide.

Fairy Cave Tour, Kuching

Fairy Cave and Wind Cave are about 50 min drives from Kuching City. The Fairy Cave is about 3-storey high. After a quick climb through the cave with torchlight, the cave opens up into a main chamber. Sunlight streams into the chamber, enabling you to view the limestone formation of several types. View the beautiful and some eerie shape of nature creations, the stalactites and stalagmites.
There is a formation that has been likened to the Goddess of Mercy which at about 3 metres in height resembles a woman dressed in classical Chinese robes, complete with hat, look down benignly upon worshippers. Another formation looks like an old man crouching down.
Then proceed to the Wind Cave which only about 10 min drive away. Walking along the platform, you will find that this dark-tunnel like cave is filled with bats and swiftest. Look around the wall of the cave with torchlight and you might be lucky to spot the bird nest with some eggs in it.

Irrawaddy Dolphins and Mangrove Nature Tour, Kuching

This cruise combines the Mangrove Cruise with a visit to the santubong River mouth in search of the Irrawaddy dolphins. Dolphin watching may take place before or after the mangrove cruise, 
depending on tidal conditions.

 Kuching Bird Watching Tour - Over 700  bird species in Malaysia

Malaysia has more than 700 species of bird. With one day Birth watching in the forest, you will have chance to see some of our great bird life ! One Day Tour From Kuching, Malaysia.

Friday, 17 June 2011

visit sarawak :)

Geography

Having land area of 124,450 km² spreading between latitude 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, it makes up 37.5% of the land of Malaysia. Sarawak also contains large tracts of tropical rain forest home to an abundance of plant and animal species.

The state of Sarawak stretches for over 750 km along the north east coastline of Borneo, interrupted in the north by about 150 km of Brunei coast. Sarawak is separated from the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and culminate near the source of the Baram River with the steep Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu in the Park of the same name and Mount Murud with the highest peak in Sarawak.

The major rivers from the south to the north include Sarawak River, the Lupar River, the Saribas River, the Rajang River which is the longest river in Malaysia at 563 km long. The Baleh River branch, the Baram River and the Limbang River drains into the Brunei Bay as it divides the two parts of Brunei and the Trusan River. The Sarawak river 2459k2 in area and is the main river flowing through the capital Kuching.

Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying flat country with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. The hill region provides most of the easily inhabited land and most of the larger cities and towns have been built in this region. The ports of Kuching and Sibu have been built some distance from the coast on rivers. Bintulu and Miri are close to the coast line where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea. The third region is the mountain region along the border and with the Kelabit and Murut highlands in the north.

Ethnic Groups

Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home-villages for employment reasons. Sarawak is distinctive from the rest of Malaysia in that there is only a small community of Indians living in the state.

1.Dayak Iban


Sea Dayaks (Iban) women from Rejang, Sarawak, wearing rattan corsets decorated with brass rings and filigree adornments. The family adds to the corset dress as the girl ages and based on her family's wealth.

The Ibans comprise the largest percentage (almost 34%) of Sarawak's population. Formerly reputed to be the most formidable headhunters on the island of Borneo, the Ibans of today are a generous, hospitable and placid people. Because of their history as pirates and fishermen, Ibans were conventionally referred to as the "Sea Dayaks". The early Iban settlers migrated from Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo south of Sarawak, via the Kapuas River. They crossed over the Kelingkang range and set up home in the river valleys of Batang Ai, the Skrang River, Saribas, and the Rajang River. The Ibans dwell in longhouses, stilted structures with a large number of rooms housing a whole community of families.

An Iban longhouse may still display head trophies or antu pala. These suspended heads mark tribal victories and were a source of honor. The Dayak Iban ceased practicing headhunting in the 1930s.

The Ibans are renowned for their Pua Kumbu (traditional Iban weavings), silver craft, wooden carvings and bead work. Iban tattoos, which were originally symbols of bravery among Iban warriors, have become amongst the most distinctive in the world. The Ibans are also famous for a sweet rice wine called tuak, which is served during big celebrations and festive occasions.

The large majority of Ibans practise Christianity. However, like most other ethnic groups in Sarawak, they still observe many of their traditional rituals and beliefs. Sarawak celebrates colourful festivals such as the Gawai Dayak (harvest festival), Gawai Kenyalang (hornbill, or the god of war festival), penuaian padi and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead).

2. Chinese

Chinese people first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. Today, they make up 26% of the population of Sarawak and consist of communities built from the economic migrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The first Chinese (Hakka) migrants worked as labourers in the gold mines at Bau or on plantations. Through their clan associations, business acumen and work ethic, the Chinese organised themselves economically and rapidly dominated commerce. Today, the Chinese are amongst Sarawak's most prosperous ethnic groups.

The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups, the most significant being:

  • Hakka
  • Hokkien
  • Teochew
  • Hailam
  • Foochow
  • Puxian Min

Whereas Hakka is spoken predominantly by the farmers in the interior, Hokkien and Teochew are the dominant dialects spoken within the major trading towns and among early traders and businessmen. Hailam were well-known as coffee-shop operators, the Henghua are famous as fishermen. The notable difference between those who presided in West Malaysia is the common use of Cantonese. Mandarin however was and still is the unifying language spoken by all the different dialectic groups in both East and West Malaysia. The Chinese maintain their ethnic heritage and culture and celebrate all the major cultural festivals, most notably Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians.

3. Malay

The Malays make up 21% of the population in Sarawak. Traditionally fishermen, these seafaring people chose to form settlements on the banks of the many rivers of Sarawak. Today, many Malays have migrated to the cities where they are heavily involved in the public and private sectors and taken up various professions.
Malay villages, known as Kampungs, are a cluster of wooden houses on stilts, many of which are still located by rivers on the outskirts of major towns and cities, play home to traditional cottage industries. The Malays are famed for their wood carvings, silver and brass craftings as well as traditional Malay textile weaving with silver and gold thread (kain songket).

Malays are Muslim by religion, having been converted to the faith some 600 years ago with the Islamification of the native region. Their religion is reflected in their culture and art and Islamic symbolism is evident in local architecture – from homes to government buildings.

4. Melanau

The Melanaus have been thought to be amongst the original settlers of Sarawak.

Originally from Mukah (the 10th Administrative Division as launched in March 2002), the Melanaus traditionally lived in tall houses. Nowadays, they have adopted a Malay lifestyle, living in kampong-type settlements. Traditionally, Melanaus were fishermen and still today, they are reputed as some of the finest boat-builders and craftsmen.

While the Melanaus are ethnically different from the Malays, their lifestyles and practices are quite similar. This is especially the case in the larger towns and cities where most Melanau have adopted the Islamic faith.[21]
The Melanaus were believed to originally summon spirits in a practice verging on paganism. Today most of the Melanaus community is Muslim whilst some remain Christians, though they still celebrate traditional animist festivals such as the annual Kaul Festival.

5. Dayak Bidayuh

Concentrated mainly on the West end of Borneo, the Bidayuhs make up 10% of the population in Sarawak are now most numerous in the hill counties of Padawan, Bau and Serian, within half an hour drive from Kuching.

Historically, as other tribes were migrating into Sarawak and forming settlements including the Malays from the neighbouring archipelagos, the Bidayuhs retreated further inland, hence earning them the name of "Land Dayaks" or "land owners". The word Bidayuh in itself literally means "land people" in Biatah dialect. In Bau-Jagoi/Singai dialect, the pronunciation is "Bidoyoh" which also carry the same meaning.

The traditional community construction of the Bidayuh is the "baruk", a roundhouse that rises about 1.5 metres off the ground. It serves as the granary and the meeting house for the settlement's community. Longhouses were typical in the olden days, similar to that of the Ibans.

Typical of the Sarawak indigenous groups, the Bidayuhs are well-known for their hospitality, and are reputed to be the best makers of tuak, or rice wine. Bidayuhs also use distilling methods to make “arak tonok”, a kind of moonshine.

The Bidayuhs speak a number of different but related dialects. Some Bidayuhs speak either English or Malay as their main language. While some of them still practise traditional religions, the majority of modern-day Bidayuhs have adopted the Christian faith.

6. Dayak Orang Ulu


A young Sarawakian playing the sapeh

The phrase Orang Ulu means upriver people and is a term used to collectively describe the numerous tribes that live upriver in Sarawak's vast interior. Such groups include the major Kayan and Kenyah tribes, and the smaller neighbouring groups of the Kajang, Kejaman, Punan, Ukit, and Penan. Nowadays, the definition also includes the down-river tribes of the Lun Bawang, Lun Dayeh, "mean upriver" or "far upstream", Berawan, Saban as well as the plateau-dwelling Kelabits. The various Orang Ulu groups together make up roughly 5.5% of Sarawak's population. The Orang Ulu are artistic people with longhouses elaborately decorated with murals and woodcarvings. They are also well-known for their intricate beadwork and detailed tattoos. The Orang Ulu tribe can also be identified by theirunique musical sound made by a sapeh, a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin.

A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribe are Christians but traditional religions are still practised in some areas.
Some of the major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include:


  • Kayan

There are approximately 15,000 Kayans in Sarawak. The Kayan tribe built their longhouses in the northern interiors of Sarawak midway on the Baram River, the upper Rejang River and the lower Tubau River, and were traditionally headhunters.

They are well known for their boat making skills. The Kayan people carve from a single block of belian, the strongest of the tropical hardwoods.
Although many Kayan have become Christians, some still practise paganistic beliefs, but this is becoming more rare.


  • Lun Bawang

The Lun Bawang are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei (Temburong District), southwest of Sabah (Interior Division) and northern region of Sarawak (Limbang Division).Lun Bawang people are traditionally agriculturalists and rear poultry, pigs and buffalo. Lun Bawangs are also known to be hunters and fishermen.


  • Kelabit

With a population of approximately 3000, the Kelabit are inhabitants of Bario – a remote plateau in the Sarawak Highlands, slightly over 1,200 meters above sea level. The Kelabits form a tight-knit community and practise and practice agriculture methods used for generations. Famous for their rice-farming, they also cultivate a variety of other crops which are suited to the cooler climate of the Highlands of Bario. The Kelabits are closely related to the Lun Bawang.

The Kelabit are predominantly Christian, the Bario Highlands having been visited by Christian missionaries many years ago.


  • Kenyah

With the population about ~22,000, the Kenyah inhabit the Upper Belaga and upper Baram. There is little historical evidence regarding the exact origin of the Kenyah tribe. Their heartland however, is Long San, along the Baram River and Belaga along Rajang River. Their culture is very similar to that of the Kayan tribe with whom they live in close association. The typical Kenyah village consists of only one longhouse. Most inhabitants are farmers, planting rice in burnt jungle clearings. With the rapid economic development, especially in timber industry, many of them work in timber camps.


  • Penan

The Penan are the only true nomadic people in Sarawak and are amongst the last of the world's hunter-gatherers. The Penan make their home under the rainforest canopy, deep within the vast expanse of Sarawak's jungles. Even today, the Penan continue to roam the rainforest hunting wild boar and deer with blowpipes.

The Penan are skilled weavers and make high-quality rattan baskets and mats. The traditional Penan religion worships a supreme god called Bungan. However, the increasing number who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle for settlement in longhouses have converted to Christianity.


  • Sebob/Chebob

One of the least known tribes in Sarawak and can be found in upper Tinjar river. Sebob are the first Tinjar settlers along the Tinjar river and it is said that others migrated at a later date. The sebob/chebob tribes occupies up to six longhouse in Tinjar including Long Loyang, Long Batan, Long Selapun, Long Pejawai and Long Subeng. Amongst the longhouses, Long Luyang is the longest and most populated Sebob/Chebob settlement. It comprises almost 100 units. Most of these people have migrated and found work in the cities.

State Anthem

video

Sarawak Tanah Air Ku
Negeri Ku Tanah Air Ku Sarawak
Engkaulah Tanah Pusaka Ku
Tanah Tumpah Darah Ku
Ibu Pertiwi Ku
Rakyat Hidup Mesra dan Bahagia
Damai Muhibbah Sentiasa
Bersatu Berusaha Berbakti
Untuk Sarawak Ku Cintai
Sarawak Dalam Malaysia
Aman Makmur Rahmat Tuhan Maha Esa
Kekallah Sarawak Bertuah
Teras Perjuangan Rakyat
Berjaya Berdaulat